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Cadillac Tech Tips - How to fix it Discussion, Vibration Diagnosis and Correction in Item Specific Cadillac Discussion; I will post more in the morning...
  1. #16
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    Re: Vibration Diagnosis and Correction

    I will post more in the morning

  2. #17
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    Re: Vibration Diagnosis and Correction

    Basic Terms

    Important
    DO NOT attempt to repair a normal condition, or the customer will probably be convinced that the vehicle has a problem. Customer satisfaction becomes extremely difficult after this point.


    The following are the 2 primary components of vibration diagnosis:

    The physical properties of objects
    The object's properties of conducting mechanical energy
    The repetitive up/down or back/forth movement of a component causes most customer vibration concerns. The following are the common components that vibrate:

    The steering wheel
    The seat cushion
    The frame
    The instrument panel
    Vibration diagnosis involves the following steps:
    1. Measure the repetitive motion and assign a value to the measurement in cycles per second or cycles per minute.
    2. Relate the frequency to the rotational speed of a component that is operating at the same rate or speed.
    3. Inspect and test the components for conditions that cause vibration.

    For example, performing the following steps will help demonstrate the vibration theory:

    1.gif


    1. Clamp a yardstick to the edge of a table, leaving approximately 50 cm (20 in) hanging over the edge of the table.
    2. Pull down on the edge of the stick and release while observing the movement of the stick.

    The motion of the stick occurs in repetitive cycles. The cycle begins at midpoint, continues through the lowest extreme of travel, then back past the midpoint, through the upper extreme of travel, and back to the midpoint where the cycle begins again.

    The cycle occurs over and over again at the same rate, or frequency. In this case, approximately 10 cycles per second. If we measure the frequency to reflect the number of complete cycles that the yardstick made in one minute, the measure would be 10 cycles x 60 seconds = 600 cycles per minute (cpm).

    We have also found a specific amount of motion, or amplitude, in the total travel of the yardstick from the very top to the very bottom. Redo the experiment as follows:
    1. Clamp the yardstick to the edge of a table, leaving approximately 25 cm (10 in) hanging over the edge of the table.
    2. Pull down on the edge of the stick and release while observing the movement of the stick.

    The stick vibrates at a much faster frequency: 30 cycles per second (1,800 cycles per minute). The total travel, or amplitude, is less.

    Vibration
    Vibration is the repetitive motion of an object, back and forth, or up and down. The following conditions cause most vehicle vibrations:

    A rotating component
    The engine combustion process firing impulses
    Rotating components will vibrate with excessive imbalance or runout. During vibration diagnosis, the amount of allowable imbalance or runout should be considered a tolerance and not a specification. In other words, the less imbalance or runout, the better.

    A vibration concern will occur when the firing impulses of the engine are not properly isolated from the passenger compartment.

    A vibrating component operates at a consistent rate (km/h, mph, or RPM). Measure the rate of vibration in question. When the rate/speed is determined, relate the vibration to a component that operates at an equal rate/speed in order to pinpoint the source. Vibrations also tend to transmit through the body structure to other components. Therefore, just because the seat vibrates does not mean the source of the vibration is in the seat.

    Vibrations consist of the following three elements:

    The source -- the cause of the vibration
    The transfer path -- the path on which the vibration travels through the vehicle
    The responder -- the component where the vibration is felt


    2.gif

    In the preceding figure, the source of the vibration is the unbalanced tire. The transfer path is the route the vibrations travels through the vehicle's suspension system into the steering column. The responder is the steering wheel, which the customer reports as vibrating. Eliminating any one of these three elements will usually correct the condition. From the gathered information, decide which element makes the most sense to repair. Adding a brace to the steering column may keep the steering wheel from vibrating, but adding a brace is not a practical solution. The most direct and effective repair would be to properly balance the tire.


    3.gif


    Vibration can also produce noise. As an example, consider a vehicle that has an exhaust pipe which is grounded to the frame. The source of the vibration is the engine firing impulses traveling through the exhaust. The transfer path is a grounded or bound-up exhaust hanger. The responder is the frame. The floor panel vibrates, acting as a large speaker, which produces noise. The best repair would be to align the exhaust system and correct the grounded condition at the frame. This would eliminate the transfer path.

    Cycle


    4.gif

    (1) 1st Cycle
    (2) 2nd Cycle
    (3) 3rd Cycle
    (4) Time

    FIGURE Vibration Cycles in Powertrain Components(c)

    5.gif


    (1) Spindle
    (2) Pinion Nose

    The word cycle comes from the same root as the word circle: both begin and end at the same point. All vibrations consist of repetitive cycles.

    Frequency

    6.gif

    (1) Amplitude
    (2) Reference
    (3) Time in Seconds
    (4) 1 Second

    Frequency is defined as the rate at which an event occurs during a given period of time. With a vibration, the event is a cycle, and the period of time is one second. Thus, frequency is expressed in cycles per second, or Hertz (Hz). Multiply the Hertz by 60 to get the cycles, or revolutions per minute (RPM).

    Amplitude

    7.gif


    (1) Maximum
    (2) Minimum
    (3) Zero-to-Peak Amplitude
    (4) Peak-to-Peak Amplitude

    Amplitude is the maximum value of a periodically varying quantity. Used in vibration diagnostics, amplitude is the magnitude of the disturbance. A severe disturbance would have a high amplitude and a minor disturbance would have a low amplitude.

    Amplitude is measured by the amount of actual movement, or the displacement. For example, consider the vibration caused by an out-of-balance wheel at 80 km/h (50 mph) as opposed to 40 km/h (25 mph). As the speed increases, the amplitude increases.

  3. #18
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    Re: Vibration Diagnosis and Correction

    Basic Terms Continued


    Free Vibration
    Free vibration is the continued vibration in the absence of any outside force. In the yardstick example, the yardstick continued to vibrate even after the end was released.

    Forced Vibration

    Forced vibration is when an object is vibrating continuously as a result of an outside force.

    Centrifugal Force Due to an Imbalance

    8.jpg


    (1) Location of Imbalance (Degrees)
    (2) Centrifugal Force Acting on Spindle

    A spinning object with an imbalance generates a centrifugal force. Performing the following steps will help to demonstrate centrifugal force:
    1. Tie a nut to a string.
    2. Hold the string. The nut hangs vertically due to gravity.
    3. Spin the string. The nut will spin in a circle.
    Centrifugal force is trying to make the nut fly outward, causing the pull you feel on your hand. An unbalanced tire follows the same example. The nut represents the imbalance in the tire. The string represents the tire/wheel/suspension assembly. As the vehicle speed increases, you can feel the disturbing force of the unbalanced tire in the steering wheel, the seat, and the floor. This disturbance will be repetitive (Hz) and the amplitude will increase. At higher speeds, both the frequency and the amplitude will increase. As the tire revolves, the imbalance, or the centrifugal force, will alternately lift the tire up and force the tire downward, along with the spindle, once for each revolution of the tire.

    Natural or Resonant Frequency

    9.gif


    The natural frequency is the frequency at which an object tends to vibrate. Bells, guitar strings, and tuning forks are all examples of objects that tend to vibrate at specific frequencies when excited by an external force.

    Suspension systems, and even engines within the mounts, have a tendency to vibrate at certain frequencies. This is why some vibration concerns occur only at specific vehicle speeds or engine RPM.

    The stiffness and the natural frequency of a material have a relationship. Generally, the stiffer the material, the higher the natural frequency. The opposite is also true. The softer a material, the lower the natural frequency. Conversely, the greater the mass, the lower the frequency.

    Resonance


    10.gif

    (1) Frequency - cps
    (2) Suspension Frequency
    (3) Unbalanced Excitation
    (4) Point of Resonance
    (5) Problem Speed

    All objects have natural frequencies. The natural frequency of a typical automotive front suspension is in the 10-15 Hz range. This natural frequency is the result of the suspension design. The suspension's natural frequency is the same at all vehicle speeds. As the tire speed increases along with the vehicle speed, the disturbance created by the tire increases in frequency. Eventually, the frequency of the unbalanced tire will intersect with the natural frequency of the suspension. This causes the suspension to vibrate. The intersecting point is called the resonance.

    The amplitude of a vibration will be greatest at the point of resonance. While you may feel the vibration above and below the problem speed, you will feel the vibration the most at the point of resonance.

    Damping

    11.gif


    (1) Low Damping
    (2) High Damping

    Damping is the ability of an object or material to dissipate or absorb vibration. The automotive shock absorber is a good example. The function of the shock absorber is to absorb or dampen the oscillations of the suspension system.

    Beating (Phasing)

    12.gif


    Two separate disturbances that are relatively close together in frequency (1, 2) will lead to a condition called beating, or phasing when the disturbances are combined (3). Beating occurs when two vibrating forces are adding to, or subtracting from, each other's amplitude. A beating vibration condition will increase in intensity or amplitude in a repetitive fashion as the vehicle travels at a steady speed. This beating vibration can produce the familiar droning noise heard in some vehicles. In many cases, eliminating either one of the disturbances can correct the condition.

    Order
    Order refers to how many times an event occurs during one revolution of a rotating component.


    13.gif


    For example, a tire with one high spot would create a disturbance once for every revolution of the tire. This is called first-order vibration.



    14.gif

    An oval-shaped tire with two high spots would create a disturbance twice for every revolution. This is called second-order vibration. Three high spots would be third-order, and so forth. Two first-order vibrations may add or subtract from the overall amplitude of the disturbance, but that is all. Two first-order vibrations do not equal a second-order vibration. Due to centrifugal force, an unbalanced component will always create a first-order vibration, at minimum.


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  4. #19
    AJxtcman's Avatar
    AJxtcman is offline Cadillac Owners Connoisseur
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    Re: Vibration Diagnosis and Correction

    If you managed to understand this you will understand That ALL 96+ FWD Cadillac's will have a tire vibration at the same speed + - 4 MPH. This is because the 3.11 gears have smaller tires and the 3.71 have taller tires. The Cycle, Frequency, and Amplitude will reach its greatest at or about 62 MPH + - 4 mph.

  5. #20
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    Re: Vibration Diagnosis and Correction

    NEW WORK SHEET

    It helps to be able to answer some of the basic question when you go in to th dealer.


    When diagnosing vibration concerns, use the following worksheet in conjunction with the appropriate Vibration Analysis-Road testing procedure in the Vibration Correction sub-section in SI. FILL OUT ONLY THE APPLICABLE PORTION OF THE WORKSHEET THAT APPLIES TO THE VIBRATION/NOISE.

    Refer to the appropriate section of SI for specifications and repair procedures that are related to the vibration concern.

    Vibration Analysis Worksheet

    To:

    Dealer:

    Fax Number:



    VIN__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __





    Procedure Performed By:

    Date:

    Model:

    Year: Gear Ratio:

    Odometer:

    VIN __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __

    TAC Case #, if applicable:

    Conditions During Road Test Procedures
    As condition occurs: Engine RPM_____________

    Vehicle Speed__________________

    Vibration/Noise detected during the following road test procedures:

    Engine RPM_______________ Vehicle Speed_______________

    Slow Acceleration Test: Yes__________ No__________

    Neutral Coast-Down Test: Yes__________ No__________

    Downshift Test: Yes__________ No__________

    Neutral Run-Up Test: Yes__________ No__________

    Brake Torque Test: Yes__________ No__________

    Steering Input Test: Yes__________ No__________

    Standing Start Acceleration (Launch Shudder) Test: Yes__________ No__________

    Vibration/Noise Eliminated with TCC Commanded On: Yes__________ No__________

    Vibration/Noise Eliminated with TCC Commanded Off: Yes__________ No__________

    Vibration/Noise Duplicated on Hoist: Yes__________ No__________

    When using the EVA, always take a snapshot. This will help determine which vibration shows up the most.

    Important: Vibrate software can also be used to assist in vibration diagnosis. Refer to Vibrate Software Description and Operation in SI.

    EVA Readings
    Refer to Electronic Vibration Analyzer (EVA) Description and Operation in SI for more detailed information.

    Important: As a reminder, place the EVA sensor where the vibration is mostly felt. Ensure the word "UP" on the sensor is physically facing up. The typical areas are the seat track, the steering column or the instrument panel. Locating the EVA sensor on additional area (i.e. the right fender, left fender, right quarter panel, left quarter panel, rear seat track, etc.) may also assist in determining the component causing the vibration/noise. The key is to look for the same Hz reading with the greatest amplitude G readings.



    FILL OUT ONLY THE APPLICABLE PORTION OF THE WORKSHEET THAT APPLIES TO THE VIBRATION/NOISE:



    Sensor at Steering Column:

    1st Line MPH/KPH:__________ HZ:__________ Gs:__________

    2nd Line MPH/KPH:__________ HZ:__________ Gs:__________



    Sensor at Roof:

    1st Line MPH/KPH:__________ HZ:__________ Gs:__________

    2nd Line MPH/KPH:__________ HZ:__________ Gs:__________



    Sensor at Passenger Seat Rail:

    1st Line MPH/KPH:__________ HZ:__________ Gs:__________

    2nd Line MPH/KPH:__________ HZ:__________ Gs:__________



    Sensor at Pinion Nose (Rear Wheel Drive):

    1st Line MPH/KPH:__________ HZ:__________ Gs:__________

    2nd Line MPH/KPH:__________ HZ:__________ Gs:__________



    Sensor at Pinion Nose Front Axle (Four Wheel Drive):

    1st Line MPH/KPH:__________ HZ:__________ Gs:__________

    2nd Line MPH/KPH:__________ HZ:__________ Gs:__________



    Sensor at Crossmember/Cradle (Front Wheel Drive):

    1st Line MPH/KPH:__________ HZ:__________ Gs:__________

    2nd Line MPH/KPH:__________ HZ:__________ Gs:__________

    Driveshaft Runout:

    Is round out within specification? Yes__________ No__________

    Initial: Frt:__________ Center:__________ Rear:__________ Stub Shaft:__________

    Current: Frt:__________ Center:__________ Rear:__________ Stub Shaft:__________

    Pinion Flange Runout Reading:__________

    Has a system balance been attempted: Yes__________ No__________ (If no, perform a System Balance)

    Were the drums removed to system balance? Yes__________ No__________

    Initial: HZ__________ Gs__________

    Current: HZ__________ Gs__________

    Hose clamps added: Yes__________ No__________

    Prop shaft indexed? Yes__________ No__________

    If a System Balance has been attempted but the vibration is still present or system balance was not able to be achieved, check the ring gear backlash in eight different spots on the ring gear. Note that excessive ring gear runout may result in a first order tire speed or first order prop shaft speed concern.

    Backlash in eight equal spots on the ring gear (readings should not vary more than 0.002 in (0.050 mm)):

    1__________ 2__________ 3__________ 4__________ 5__________ 6__________ 7__________ 8__________

    Does the vehicle have any of the following components attached?

    Pinion damper: Yes__________ No__________

    Pinion flange damper: Yes__________ No__________

    Exhaust damper: Yes__________ No__________

    Initial: Front angle:__________ Center Angle:__________ Rear Angle:__________

    Current: Front angle:__________ Center Angle:__________ Rear Angle:__________

    Were shims added to the following?

    Transmission/transfer case mount: Yes__________ No__________

    Pinion nose (rear springs): Yes__________ No__________

    Center Support Mount: Yes__________ No__________

    Tire Size and Brand:_____________________________________

    Wheel/Tire Runouts on vehicle (max. 0.050 in (1.27 mm))

    Refer to Corporate Bulletin Number 00-03-10-006A for tire radial force variation.

    Right rear: Inner lateral:__________ Center radial:__________

    Left rear: Inner lateral:__________ Center radial:__________

    Right front: Inner lateral:__________ Center radial:__________

    Left front: Inner lateral:__________ Center radial:__________

    Mounting surface runouts (max. 0.005 in (0.127 mm))

    Flange, right rear:__________ Hub, right front:__________

    Flange, left rear:__________ Hub, left front:__________

    Wheel stud runouts (max. 0.008 in (0.203 mm))

    Flange, right rear:__________ Hub, right front:__________

    Flange, left rear:__________ Hub, left front:__________

  6. #21
    billdaman is offline Cadillac Owners Fanatic
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    Re: Vibration Diagnosis and Correction

    Awesome post! Question, are you advocating that the customer obtain EVA equipment (such as renting) , hook everything up and perform the testing prior to filling out the worksheet? My 2006 DTS has been in countless times for a Left hand turn launch shudder that the dealer claims is "Torque steer" I am still on GMPP for 30 more days and I want to get this fixed before I am out of warranty. Any suggestions on how to get the dealer to do some actual troubleshooting?

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